Tuesday, May 26, 2020
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Friday, May 15, 2020
Sample details Pages: 4 Words: 1250 Downloads: 8 Date added: 2017/09/13 Category Advertising Essay Did you like this example? Ernest Hemingway is one of the best authors at using symbolism in his books. Santiago is an old fisherman who fishes out of a small Cuban village in the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. Santiago has fished for a living his whole life and the past 84 days he has not caught a thing. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Santiago and the Marlin" essay for you Create order 85 is his lucky number, so on the 85th day he thinks he will catch something. Sure enough he hooks up with a massive marlin and spends 3 long days fighting it. Hemingway portrays interesting symbolism between Santiago, the old fisherman, and the marlin that he catches. In HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Old Man and the Sea, the great marlin symbolizes Santiago in many ways. Being old and wise is one of the many themes that Hemingway develops in this novel as he compares the marlin and Santiago. Ã¢â¬Å"Like an athlete he forces himself to eat and sleep, although he likes neitherÃ¢â¬ (Wittowski). Santiago doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to waste his time eating or sleeping, but he knows that both are essential for his success at catching the marlin. Santiago is an old man, but along with age, comes wisdom and experience. Ã¢â¬Å"I may not be as strong as I thinkÃ¢â¬ ¦But I know many tricks and I have resolutionsÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 23). We all probably think we are smarter than what we truly are. In the battle for his life, the marlin puts up a strong fight. Like Santiago, he too seems to be old and wise. Ã¢â¬Å"The big fish refuses to surface and begins to swim out to sea, towing the skiff behind itÃ¢â¬ (Napierkoski 197). The marlin seems to know that it must stay below the surface of the water if it wants to survive. Hemingway suggests that the marlin knows this because, like Santiago, the marlin is also old and wise. Over the years, Santiago learned many lessons. The gigantic marlin obviously must have learned many things too, as he had survived this long without being caught by a fisherman. Never have I had such a strong fish nor one who acted so strangely. Perhaps he is to wise to jump. He could ruin me by jumping or a wild rush. But perhaps he has been hooked many times before and he knows that this is how he should make his fightÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 42). Throughout the novel, it is reinforced that Santiago is a good man. Even as he battles the marlin, he is fair. Like friends, there seems to be a mutual respect between Santiago and the marlin. Ã¢â¬Å"It is part of the ritual of the fighter that opponents demonstrate good friendship at every opportunityÃ¢â¬ (Wittowski). He is tiring or he is resting,Ã¢â¬ the old man said (Hemingway 62). It is not only a fight, but a game between Santiago and the marlin. This quote demonstrates that Santiago is wondering what the marlin is up to. Again, he respects how smart the marlin is and he is enjoying the challenge of out smarting him. Hemingway also uses symbolism as he describes the physical appearance of Santiago. Ã¢â¬Å"They were strange shoulders, still powerful although very old, and the neck was still strong too and the creases did not show so much when the old man was asleep and his head fallen forwardÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 19). Hemingway suggests that although Santiago looked old, he is still young and strong at heart. Hemingway also vividly describes the marlin. Ã¢â¬Å"The fish came alive with his death in him, and rose out of the water showing all his great length and width and all his power and his beautyÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 71). As he fought for his survival, the marlin jumped out of the water. Hemingway suggested that the fish was showing off, as if the fish was proud of his own beauty and size. Santiago grew a fondness for the marlin during his fight to land him. He respected the marlin. Thus, once the fish finally died, Santiago actually felt guilty. Ã¢â¬Å"After the sharks have begun to mutilate the carcass of the marlin, Santiago expresses his sorrow at having killed the marlin; he has gone out too far from shoreÃ¢â¬ (Wittowski). Santiago had won the battle with the fish, but he was sad to watch the sharks mutilate the marlin because they were also, slowly but surely, mutilating him. Hemingway reiterates through out the story how much Santiago admired the beauty and size of the marlin. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦the fish swam just below the surface; the old man could see his huge bulk and his purple stripesÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Hemingway 68). This is another example of that determination they both have. Santiago and the marlin were both survivors. Despite his many trials in life, he continued to be mentally positive and strong. Hemingway symbolizes this strength of character when he compares SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s shirt to the sail. Ã¢â¬Å"His shirt has been patched so many times that it was like the sail and the patches were faded to many different shades by the sunÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 19). Santiago is old and worn out like the sail, but he is also wise. He continues to face lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s many challenges, just as the patched sail continues to do itsÃ¢â¬â¢ job. The marlin and Santiago are not only old, wise and look alike, but they also are both strong, determined and persevere. Ã¢â¬Å"His body is old but still strong, and he maintains his grip on the line despite his age and increasing discomfortÃ¢â¬ (Napierkoski 197). This quote portrays SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s physical strength despite his age, and his strong will. Regardless of his discomfort, Santiago showed perseverance. Ã¢â¬Å"He took all his pain and what was left of his strength and his long gone pride and he put that against the fights agonyÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 70). Santiago wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to give up to the fish and the fish wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to give up to Santiago. Ã¢â¬Å"But the fish kept on circling slowly and the old man was wet with sweat and tired deep into his bones two hours laterÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 66). These words paint a vivid picture. Deep sea fisherman will tell how even fish a fraction of the size of the marlin Santiago is fighting are very strong and determined to fight as long and as hard as they can to survive. Santiago was determined to out last the fish, just like the marlin was determined to survive. His perseverance and will power allowed him to keep holding on. Santiago was all alone fighting the marlin. He could not rely on the strength of his young friend, Manolin. Ã¢â¬Å"Without the boy to help him, he knows that either he or the fish will die from thisÃ¢â¬ (Napierkoski 197). It was strictly a battle between he and the fish, and only one of them would survive. Hemingway demonstrates SantiagoÃ¢â¬â¢s perseverance as well as the marlinÃ¢â¬â¢s perseverance when he writes Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦settled himself against the rounded planks of the bow and felt the strength of the great fish through the line he held across his shoulders moving steadily toward whatever he had chosenÃ¢â¬ (Hemingway 43). The marlin was settling himself in for a long fight and Santiago was preparing for the same. Regardless of what each other chose to do, they would both be ready. The symbolism between the marlin and Santiago is endless in HemingwayÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, The Old Man and the Sea. The symbolism shows how the marlin resembles Santiago because they are both old, wise, persevere and theyÃ¢â¬â¢re appearance is alike. Hemingway did a great job showing theyÃ¢â¬â¢re resemblance and is definitely one of the best authors at using symbolism throughout his books.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Shirley Jackson What is humanitys true nature? Are people basically good, or basically evil? Over the centuries, many people have tried to find the answer to this question, to no avail. Author Shirley Jackson takes a definite stance on the issue throughout her work, arguing that people are basically evil. Many times, this theme is obviously stated in her stories, but sometimes it is woven in more subtly. In her short stories The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ Elizabeth, and Flower Garden, Shirley Jackson uses color to symbolize the cruelty and evil common in everyday life. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Lottery,Ã¢â¬ Jackson tells the story of what appears to be an innocent festival in a small, rural town in the United States. All of the townspeople gather around a blackÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Traditionally, the color black is used to represent death; in the context of a ritual stoning, it represents both death and malice on the part of the townspeople participating in the event. As Cleanth Brooks and Robert Warren say in Ã¢â¬Å"Shirley Jackson: Ã¢â¬ËThe LotteryÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬ , much of the story is a commentary on the practice of scapegoating common in old ritual practices and in current ones such as tabloid reporting (224). This is also symbolized with the black boxÃ¢â¬âthe townspeople Ã¢â¬Å"[keep] their distance, leaving a space between themselves and the stoolÃ¢â¬ (Jackson Ã¢â¬Å"The LotteryÃ¢â¬ 292) that the box is kept on when it is brought out, and focusing any visible nerves on the black box and the black mark that means their death. In this way, the color black becomes a physical manifestation of the townspeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s cruelty, as they have come to fear it rather than the people who may kill them during the ritual. The theme of color used to symbolize cruelty is continued in JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Elizabeth,Ã¢â¬ although it is more subtle than in some of her other stories. The titular character is a disappointed woman in her thirties, carrying on a loveless relationship with her boss. In general, the theme of hidden evil in everyday life is harder to pick out than in many of JacksonÃ¢â¬â¢s other storiesÃ¢â¬âthere is no horrifying twist or startling revelation to make the theme more obvious. Cruelty is instead shown in the
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Litereary poem notes Essay Literary Terms for Poetry1.Alliteration: The repetition of initial consonant sounds 2.Assonance: The repetition of vowel sounds followed by different consonants in two or more stressed syllables3. Blank Verse: Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter lines4.Concrete Poem: A poem with a shape that suggests its subject5.Consonance: the repetition in two or more words of final consonants in stressed syllables 6.Couplet: A pair of rhyming lines usually of the same length and meter7. Dramatic Poetry: Poetry that involves the techniques of drama8.Epic: A long narrative poem about the deed of gods and heroes9.Extended Metaphor: A subject is spoken or written of as though it were something else10.Free Verse: Poetry not written in a regular rhythmical pattern or meter11. Haiku: Japanese poem written in 5-7-5 needs to convey a single vivid emotion by means of images from nature12.Lyric Poem: A highly musical verse that expresses the observations of the writer13.Mood: The feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. The mood is often suggested by descriptive details14.Onomatopoeia: The use of words that imitate sounds15.Parody: A work done in imitation of another, usually in order to mock it, but sometimes just in fun16.Personification: A type of figurative language in which a nonhuman subject is given human characteristics.17.Pun: A play on words based on different meanings of words that sound alike18.Refrain: A repeated line or group of lines in a poem or song19.Repetition: The use, more than once, of any element of language- a sound, a word, a phrase, a clause, or a sentence 20.Rhyme: The repetition of sounds at the ends of words- internal rhyme occurs when the rhyming words appear in the same line21.Rhyme Scheme: A regular pattern o f rhyming words in a poem22.Rhythm: The pattern of beats, or stresses, in in spoken or written language23.Soliloquy: A long speech expressing the thoughts of a character alone on stage24.Sonnet: 14 line lyric poem, usually written in rhymed iambic pentameter25.Symbol: Anything that stands for or represents something else26.Stanza= Paragraph
Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Leadership: People to Admire Paper Defined by many, attained by few, leadership is an integral part of any organization. The public sector has many of these heroes, who exhibit qualities defined as effective leadership. The many military leaders of the United States have helped define what Americans see as leadership. Colin Powell and George C. Marshall are two such leaders who have coined ideas and demonstrated what it takes to be a leader. Leaders possess the consistent ability to influence people, to motivate them to sense a common purpose and to fulfill the functions necessary for group action. People who lead have power over others. There are five major bases of power: (1) expert power, embodying knowledge and power; (2) referent power, which is admiration and having others strive for that leaders support; (3) reward power, which is based on the leaders knack to decide rewards for the follower; (4) legitimate power, arising from a status within the institute; (5) coercive power, which is based on the followers fear that not fulfilling the leaders wishes will lead to reprimand. There is subsequent research that expert and referent power are more likely to encourage subordinate performance and satisfaction(Shafritz and Russell 328-9). While French and Raven can define types of power, what traits transcribe the people that wield the power? Good leaders are effective communicators, empathetic, energetic; possess sound-judgment, consistent, and autonomous. These characteristics, along with ways that one leads, can show how people become effective leaders. Democratic leaders who excise their leadership position to the level of working with people such as Secretary of State Colin Powell brings fourth an idea of servant leadership. Born in Harlem in 1937, Colin Powell is the son of Jamaican immigrants. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership: People to Admire specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership: People to Admire specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership: People to Admire specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Growing up in a rough area, Powell was educated in the public school system and went on to City College of New York. He spent his formative years in a scene that is not essentially favorable to developing leadership skills in a community environment. To endure and prosper, Powell had to institute goals and set a vision for himself that transcended his environment-while not ignoring its veiled benefits. Powells early focus was the beginning of a remarkable leadership career that continues to benefit all Americans today. After completing the schools ROTC program and graduating from CCNY in 1958, Colin Powell was commissioned an Army second lieutenant. When he retired from the military 35 years later, he had held diverse leadership positions and had risen to the rank of 4-star General, eventually becoming the 12th Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the highest position in the Defense Department (Holberton). Colin Powell stands out from his peers as being one of the few individuals who can traverse political party lines and lead various individuals and organizations. Why is Colin Powell a good leader? Maybe it is his gifted ability to speak. Perhaps it is his straightforward, charismatic approach. More than likely, it is both these traits and his personal core values that resonate with so many of us (Holberton). Powells intellect, endurance and devoted practice of taking accountability for his actions make him a good leader. Colin Powell has always been true to his values and to the higher order of his mission. His focus as a military officer was winning battles and wars and supporting the agenda of the United States. Because he was able to work successfully with many individuals, regardless of their policy, he became a trusted advisor to many in both political parties. This well-merited respect has aided him in attaining his present position as Secretary of State, in which he helps shape policy rather than simply following it. Preserving Dodona Manor [Marshalls home] as a memorial to this outstanding soldier and statesman will preserve General Marshalls legacy for generations to come. Colin Powell had this to say about one of his predecessors, George C. Marshall. Perhaps General Marshalls most prominent trait as a leader was inspirational motivation. He had a vision and encouraged others to follow. Marshalls father owned a flourishing coal company in Pennsylvania, but the boy, choosing to become a soldier, enrolled at the Virginia Military Institute from which he graduated in 1901 as senior first captain of the Corps of Cadets. After serving in posts in the Philippines and the United States, Marshall graduated with honors from the Infantry-Cavalry School at Fort Leavenworth in 1907 and from the Army Staff College in 1908. The young officer distinguished himself in a variety of posts in the coming years, earning an appointment to the General Staff in World War I and acting as aide-de-camp to General Pershing, and holding many high ranking positions in and around the military. In July 1938, Marshall accepted a position with the General Staff in Washington, D. C. , and in September 1939, President Roosevelt named Marshall chief of staff, with the rank of general. He became General of the Army in 1944, the year in which Congress created the five-star rank (Haberman). In his position as chief of staff, Marshall urged military readiness previous to the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, and later became accountable for the building, supplying, and, in part, the deploying of over eight million soldiers. From 1941, he was a member of the policy commission that oversaw the atomic studies engaged in by American and British scientists. With the war over, Marshall resigned in November 1945 (Haberman). Marshall did not resign from public service; when his military service ended, he took up a diplomatic livelihood. During his diplomatic career, he participated in many conferences, one being the conference on the Atlantic Charter. In late 1945 and in 1946, he represented President Truman on a special mission to a China torn by civil war; in January 1947, he accepted the Cabinet position of secretary of state, holding it for two years. In the spring of 1947, he outlined his most famous accomplishment in a speech at Harvard University the plan of economic aid which history has named the Marshall Plan (Haberman). The Marshall Plan was his personal effort to extend the helping hand to restore a then distraught Europe, which led to the $16. 2 billion Economic Recovery Program. His plan changed the course of history for humankind. It was the first time in history that the conquerors rebuilt the defeated. The Marshall Plan became the basis for the current alliance of the European Union (Kingsbury-Smith Keesee). For one year during the Korean War, General Marshall was secretary of defense, a civilian post in the U. S. Cabinet. Having resigned from this post in September 1951, he retired from public service. Soldier, Citizen and Statesman Marshall received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953 for his grand humanitarian efforts and numerous contributions to world peace and understanding (Haberman). In war he was as wise and understanding in counsel as he was resolute in action. In peace, he was the architect who planned the restoration of our battered European economy and, at the same time labored tirelessly to established a system of Western defense. He has always fought victoriously against defeatism, discouragement, and disillusion. Succeeding generations must not be allowed to forget his achievements and his example. Sir Winston Churchill [On Marshall and his Leadership] With these two leaders in mind, with their different traits attributing to their leadership, one could see there are many qualities that make a leader. Marshalls vision exhibiting transformational leadership and Powells charisma that embodies a transactional approach are only two of many such qualities that define a leader. Leaders are everywhere in everyday life, these are only two prominent figures that exemplify what situational and other factors and characteristics that contribute to their ability to lead. Works Cited Holberton ,Phil. Profile of a Leader: Colin Powell. Speaking of Leadership(r). Vol. 2, No. 8. (April 9, 2002) 1 pp. On-line. Internet. October 10, 2004. Available FTP:http://www. holberton. com/index. html Kingsbury-Smith Keesee, Diana. George C. Marshall. Internet. October 10, 2004:n. pag. On-line. Available WWW: http://www. bnt. com/marshall/incenter. html.
Thursday, March 12, 2020
Human Resource Marketing Strategies Maersk Executive Summary The report highlights the market entry strategy for Maersk into the Kenyan logistics market. The report highlights six main strategies that the company should use in terms of human resource management.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Human Resource Marketing Strategies: Maersk specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The report is developed against the backdrop of the effect on a human resource strategy on the overall business strategy. To this end, the report ensures that a holistic discussion on the business relevance of the strategies outlined. Recruitment and selection coupled with training and development form the first tier of the human resource strategies. The second tier involves reward management and employee performance which are outlined to illustrate the role of the employee an organisation. Performance management is also outlined. The same provides a link between the roles of the employees and the company objectives. Introduction Logistics in East and Central Africa The growth of international trade gas resulted in a subsequent growth of the logistics industry. Kampfe (2007) argues that the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in Africa, over the past five years has been splendid. To this end, multinational companies have been setting up shop in the continent with the sole intention of maximising on the growth of the sector. Over the past five years, the logistics market in African has witnessed growth due to a number of economic variables. However with the growth of the market comes a need to invest in human resources. The report highlights how Maersk is penetrating the East and Central African market. In the past five years, the East African logistics industry has grown. Investor confidence in the sector is on an increase. Kampfe (2007) argues that multi-national companies have increasingly been setting up shop in the region. Africa finds itself in a strategic position fo r investment due to the affordability of doing business. In Most European countries, the recession resulted in companies diversifying their business. Going forward the logistics industry will continue to expand due to globalisation. Mandy, Noe and Gowan (2005) argue that globalisation enhances international trade. To this end, the future of the logistics industry market in Africa is great.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The logistics industry is also characterised by a number of challenges. Technological advancements, for example, have made companies reconsider certain decisions related to human resource management. Prasad and Kanalanabhan (2010, p. 318) suggest that human resource strategies need to be informed by the changes in an industry. The report will outline a suitable human resource strategy for Maersk and its entry into the Kenyan Market. Report Str ucture The report has 7 different sections. The general discussion in the report will be how Maersk can rely on relevant human resource policies for a suitable strategy for their Kenyan subsidiary. The first section is the introduction where an overview of the report is outlined, detailing the structure and key theoretical principles that will be applied. According to Kamoche (2002, p. 993) a suitable human resource strategy is informed by relevant theories in the field. The second section outlines the recruitment and selection process. The same is informed by the fact that a multi-national company requires the necessary manpower to carry out their core business (Kamoche 2002, p, 993). The third section outlines the training and development. Training and development is important in ensuring the employees of a company are up to par with the industry requirements. Thereafter the report outlines, reward management, performance management and employee involvement. The final section is a conclusion wherein recommendations are made regarding the industry. International Business Environment in Kenya Overview The implementation of suitable human resource strategy is informed by a number of variables. Prasad and Kamalanabhan (2010) argue that human resource strategies rely on the business climate in a particular country. To this end, this section of the paper outlines MaerskÃ¢â¬â¢s company profile.Advertising We will write a custom coursework sample on Human Resource Marketing Strategies: Maersk specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Prasad and Kamalanabhan (2010) argue that the analysis of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profile is based on its aims, goals and international intentions. The same enables a suitable human resource management strategy to be adopted. Such a strategy is usually in line with the overall business strategy. Company Profile for Maersk Group The Maersk Group is an incorporated business entity made up of several b usiness subsidiaries. According to Kampfe (2007), the company is a key player in the global logistical industry. To this end, their entry into the Kenyan Market is informed by their core objectives. Kampfe (2007) carried out an analysis of several multinational companies which included Maersk. The analysis, among others examined the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s profile which cites the company as a shipping agency. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is the understanding of their clients, business and market. Kampfe (2007) adds that the company guarantees their clients competitive transportation service. Kamoche (2002, p. 993) argues that Africa, and by extension Kenya, is projected to have increased trading activity. To this end, Maersk GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s mission is compatible with the demands of the African market. Kamoche (2002, p. 43) cites the increased cargo demands into the continent and a subsequent need to transport goods inland. Kenya is seen as strategic in terms of entry into the East and Centr al African market. It makes sense for an international company to set up shop in the region. Five PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Forces When an organisation is keen on market entry an evaluation of the same is suitable based on a number of parameters. The Maersk GroupÃ¢â¬â¢s entry into the Kenyan market requires an analysis based on such concepts as the PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s forces. According to Kampfe (2007, p. 50), the Five PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Forces allow a company to come up with a suitable business strategy. Consequently, a suitable human resource management strategy is realised through such a perspective about a given market.Advertising Looking for coursework on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The first aspect regarding Porters forces is the threat to new entrants. Kamoche (2002, p. 995) argues that the Kenyan market has been liberalised. Investors are attracted by the increase in terms of exports over the previous years. Figure 1 is an illustration of how exports in the Kenyan market have performed in the past. Figure 1: Source: Kamoche (2002, p. 995) According to figure 1, Kenya witnessed an upsurge in imports from various destinations. The implications, of the increase are that, the threat to new entrants is relatively low. Kamoche (2002, p. 995) argues that the government has put in place relevant measures to attract investors. The same is coupled by the fact that there is evidently a large market that requires attention. With respect to the bargaining power of buyers, Kenya has a nascent economy. Kamoche (2002, p. 994) emphasises on the fact that the economy is still growing and the household incomes are still insufficient for competitive business action. However th e countryÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructural activities are contributing to an upsurge of imports in form of raw materials. Consequently, the same has brought increased investor activity, with a majority of raw material being imported. The same calls for services like container freight services, which Maersk is bringing to the country. Recruitment and Selection Once a company has entered a given market, it is imperative that it rolls out a plan to acquire new staff. Kramar (2014, p. 1069) defines recruitment as the identification of the need to engage a given number of employees in a company. Kramar (2014, p. 1069) goes on to define selection as the process through which an organisation carries out vetting on applicants to a given position. The selection is concluded once a suitable candidate is settled upon. Maersk, in its intention to enter the Kenyan market must be alive to the fact that they will need to engage the services of a certain number of employees. The recruitment and selection o f staff is informed by the need for sufficient training. To this end, companies like Maersk, employ the Frase Rodger Framework. According to Kramar (2010, p. 1070), the Frase Rodger framework is employed by companies due to the need to develop the skill levels of the entire workforce. Consequently, the aspect of training is encouraged in all organisations to ensure that the staff members have the relevant knowledge pertaining to the specific field. Logistics has a number of fields that require specialisation. To this end, Maersk is going to invest a lot on training since there is a scarcity of skilled labour in the market. The recruitment of personnel can be conducted in-house or external advertisements made. A company like Etihad Airlines is a respected strategist on the human resource front. Their entry into Africa broke glass ceilings on several fronts. For instance, Kampfe (2007, p. 55) indicates that the company up their management positions to external applicants. In most case s companies prefer to retain management positions whenever they go to a new country. Such a strategy used to work in places where there is absolute scarcity of skilled labour. However, a country like Kenya is known to have sufficient personnel capable of handling a freight company (Kamoche 2002, p. pp4). Consequently, Maersk should consider coming up with a strategy that blends between the two avenues of recruitment As already mentioned, a company can opt for an internal or external recruitment process. In both cases, Gilmore and Williams (2009, p. 67) suggest that experience and proven capabilities must inform the recruitment process. Nonetheless, each of the recruitment platforms has its own merits and demerits. In point form, the following are the merits of internal recruitment: A company saves on the resources that would be used to train new employees New stuff might disrupt the blue print of a company. However, an internally sourced employee shares in the vision of a company. The idea that a new job will pop up, internally, acts an incentive to hard work within any organisation The risk factor of hiring an insider is lower than hiring an external employee. Notwithstanding the benefits of internal recruitment, there are demerits which ought to inform persons of its suitability. The following are the disadvantages to internal selection; It results in burden to replace the employee who has taken up the new job position. Reforms might not be forthcoming if an insider is appointed to a new position Employee rivalry may result in the event one is promoted to a new role. The same reduces performance Basing on the advantages and disadvantages of the internal recruitment process, a company can make an informed decision on how such a recruitment policy would affect its performance. According to Kapfe (2007, p. 55), suitable human resource strategy for a new company is based on loyalty. An organisation works best when the members of staff are reliable and can be trusted. Holtbrugge, Friedman and Puck (2010 p. 439) recommend a partial internal recruitment process for organisations entering a new market. Such a process would require that the initial management team be composed of both internal and externally sourced employees. Such a move allows for diversity within a company. Training and Development Human resource management requires, among other things the improvement of skills for the work. As already defined, training entails skill improvement of the employees in an organisation. Grieves (2003, p. 77) relates training to the development of an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s performance in a given job description. Under such circumstances, the employees are provided with the necessary skills to undertake the various jobs in that organisation. Essentially, training entails the improvement of the knowledge associated with a particular job. There are a number of reasons why companies focus on training and development for their human resource. Kramar (2 014, p. 1070) argues that the same is particularly true for companies that are entering into a new market altogether. For instance, the intentions by Maersk to set up shop in the Kenyan market, comes with the understanding that skill improvement is necessary. Kamoche (2002, p. 994) argues that many multi-national companies that invest in Africa, factor in training and development in their planning due to scarcity in skills that meet international standards. Training and development is not a generalised concept. Companies tend to come up with a training and development framework that specialises on different roles in an organisation (Grieves 2003, p. 77). It is important to clarify that Maersk is not entering the Kenyan market, per se, for the first time. However, through one of its subsidiaries, Maersk intends to provide other logistical services including storage and handling of cargo. To this end, a number of job openings will be available. However, the same will be subject to rig orous training and development to ensure that the company attains international standards in its performance. As already mentioned, training and development involves the impacting of knowledge to the employees in an organisation. The knowledge will trickle down to the actual improvement of skills in the said organisation. Grieves (2003, p. 45) argues that knowledge keeps on changing. It is not possible to be content with knowledge. Such an assurance implies that training and development needs to be sequential. Kamoche (2002, p. 994) argues that companies entering a new market need t come up with a period. Figure 2 is an illustration of a periodic training and development schedule. Figure 2 Source: Kramar (2014, p. 76) Figure 2 illustrates how Kurray Group has developed a training scheme for their employees. The company was venturing into the Pakistan market. According to Kramar (2014, p. 76), the clustering of the employees into the respective roles is an efficient means of attaini ng the goals of training and development. Figure 2 indicates that each job class has a specific training regimen. The same can be carried out depending on the set goals of an organisation. The market entry of Maersk into the Kenyan market requires a similar attention to training and development. Companies are required to ensure that the training covers all the employees in an organisation. According to Prasad and Kamalanabhan (2010, p. 316) there are companies who perceive training as a requisite for the new members of staff. Unforttunately, that may not be the case. When a new concept emerges in an industry all the employees in that field will require training. Kampfe (2007, p. 47) argues that a shipping business has new trends emerging every so often. To this end, training should encompass all the employees in an organisation, regardless of their stay Training and development, in an organisation is meant to prepare the workforce for any future demands in the job group in reference . To this end, there are a number of training models that an organisation can employ. The result will be an overall improvement in the performance of such organisations within the market in reference. According to Grieves (2003, p. 104) training can be carried out, in an organisation, based on the need assessment. The same is derived from the systems model of training. A company identifies its immediate needs and responds to them accordingly. The training will carried out to ensure the workforce meets the said needs. Organisational analysis is another aspect of the systems model of training. Mondy et al. (2005, p. 88) argue that depending on a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s organisational performance, the needs for training arises. For instance, if a department in a given organisation is not performing as expected, there is a need to introduce a new work regiment. Consequently training becomes important. Other components of the systems model of training include the following: Job analysis Person analysis Development of a training scheme The design of a suitable environment for training Reward Management It is a norm to award excellent performance in any organisation. Suitable reward strategy ensures that an organisation is able to have a well motivated workforce. According to Dickman and Muller-Camen (2006, p. 581) reward management is born out of the need to ensure that a workforce is well compensated for their efforts in an organisation. Essentially, a reward management regimen ensures that there is a proper framework for the appreciation of the work carried out by the employees in an organisation. A reward management program is responsible for the control and analysis of several aspects of the employees. Dickmann and Muller-Camen (2006, p. 581) argue that all the benefits of employees must be included in a reward management program. To this end, all forms of remuneration and compensations are made with respect to the performance of an individual in a given organisation . The objective of such a reward management plan is to ensure that all the aspects of a reward structure are adhered to in the implementation of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s reward structure. Organisations that are venturing into a new market must ensure that the reward management guarantees employees satisfaction in the organisation. A suitable reward structure is one that entails the following: A comprehensive pay policy and related practices An efficient administration of the payroll system Incorporation of the minimum wage policy aid out Payment of the bonuses and other related benefits The objective of reward management is to ensure that the contribution made by the employees in an organisation, does not go unnoticed. Under reward management system, the employees in an organisation get a fair and commensurate award for all their hard work. According to Grote (2002, p. 76), a reward system is meant to motivate the employees. The same also attracts employees to the organisation. Grote (2 002, p. 76) argues that an organisation that is getting into a given market is required to have an attractive reward management policy. Such a policy must ensure that competing firms do not have an upper hand. The reward management policy is quite ideal in theory. However, its implementation in reality is a thorny subject in many organisations. According to Grote (2002, p. 98) many organisations come up with a specific reward system that is aimed at appreciating a given parameter in an organisation. However, in most cases, the item marked for award is not often rewarded. Grote (2002, p. 98) insists that diversion of an intended reward from one objective to another, reduces the credibility of the reward system altogether. There are a number of reward systems in an organisation. Grote (2002, p. 76) argues that depending on the reward, the objective is as diverse. To this end, implementation of the various reward systems guarantees a satisfied workforce in the said organisation. In mos t cases people associate rewards with slight increases in salaries. However, Dickmann and Muller-Camen (2006, p. 584) argue that that is just one out of the several rewards that exist. Grote (2002, p. 76) refers to such an award as being extrinsic. Many employees prefer increments in their salaries owing to the inability to attract other forms of reward n an organisation. Extrinsic rewards are the kind that employees get after a certain duration of service to an organisation. According to Grievers (2003, p. 77) extrinsic rewards include such rewards as bonuses, promotions, gifts and salary increments. The other type of reward is referred to as the intrinsic rewards, which are geared at giving an individual personal satisfaction. Some of the characteristics of intrinsic rewards include positive feedback and trusting an employee with more responsibility. Grote (2002, p. 56) also suggests that intrinsic rewards incorporates such issues as employee recognition. The entry of a new compan y in a given market requires a careful analysis of the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s reward preferences. Grote (2002, p. 55) argues that in some societies employee satisfaction appeals more that the financial gain. A worker needs to be valued in an organisation. To this end, multinational companies like Maersk are required to develop a reward system that ensures the employees feel appreciated for the work they put in an organisation. A satisfied employee is motivated to work even harder in an organisation. Performance Management Performance management is a concept in human resource management that ensures the workforce confirms to an organisations objective. According to Dessler (2000, p. 170), performance management is crucial in companies venturing into a new market. Grote (2002, p. 70) argues employees are better placed in understanding how an organisation is expected to operate due to the link between their respective work efforts and an organisationÃ¢â¬â¢s core objectives. Performance mana gement is realised once the employees are geared towards certain expectations. Grote (2002, p. 37) explains that the employees in an organisation must develop certain targets. Such targets ensure that all the actions and behaviours of the personnel result in the projected targets. Grote (2002, p. 67) argues that performance management relies on the incorporation of performance parameters like standards and performance dimensions. Such parameters ensure that employees stick to their duties for the benefit of the company. Market entry is often characterised by a number of challenges that have a direct impact on the long-term performance of a given company. However, through performance management, can organisation realise their respective missions with ease. According to Kampfe (2007, p. 57) Etihad Airlines penetrated the European market courtesy of its excellent record on performance management. The company ensured all the employees bought in to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision. Consequent ly, it became easy to set targets that the company expected to attain. The targets were realised owing to the collective effort played by the members of staff. Maersk would do well to adopt a similar policy. Employee Involvement When people are engaged in employment in a given organisation, it is important that they feel like the organisation is their second family. Under such circumstances, Kamoche (2002, p. 994) argues that employee involvement ensures that people are comfortable to work in an environment where they have a say in matters that touch on their jobs. It is important to observe employee involvement as a philosophy rather than as a tool. An organisation is required to incorporate all its staff members on its overall operations. Employee involvement will therefore require the participation of the workforce in the decision making process. According to Kampfe (2007), multi-national organisations are perceived as foreigners whenever thy venture into a new market territory. To this end, the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future will depend on how the locals perceive their role in the decision making processes. Consequently, a company that allows for the opinions of the participation of the members of staff will find it easier to operate in just about any market. Employee involvement, as a human resource principle, can be applied as a strategy based on a given model. A suitable employee involvement is one that ensures the decision making process are largely influenced by the employees rather than the management (Kramar 2014, p. 1087). Figure 3 is a suitable model of employee involvement in a company. Figure 3: Employee involvement in decision making Figure 3 illustrates how a decision can be arrived at in an organisation. Assuming that a decision needs to be made, the manager can tell the members of staff what that decision is all about. In this case, the manager has absolute control over the decision making process. However, the in-charge, in an organisation, can o pt to sell the ideas behind the decision to the members of staff. According to Grieves (2003, p. 71) such a move is an attempt by management to gain support f the decisions from the members. Decision making process can also be consultative. In figure 3, consultation is highlighted wherein the manner arrives at a decision with the involvement of the involvement of the employees. The consultative mechanism allows for the input of the employees although the ultimate decision is made by the manager. Employee involvement can go a notch high when the manager asks the members of staff to join them in implementing a decision. However, through delegation, the employees relish in the responsibilities bestowed upon them. Consequently, the decisions made end up affecting them positively. Employee involvement is a key asset in ensuring market penetration by a given organisation. Maersk stands to benefit from the same if they allow employee participation in the decision making process. According to Dessler (2000, p. 88) new companies in the market can use this strategy as a human resource retention strategy. The same would help reduce loss of staff to rival companies since they will feel like they belong to the company acknowledges their role in the overall performance. Conclusion In conclusion, the entry of a company like Maersk to an African country signals increased competition into the market. To this end a suitable human resource strategy is required. According to Hoch and Dulebohn (2013, p. 114) such a strategy should consider a number of variables like recruitment and training. Fortunately, the report has highlighted the respective aspects of human resource management that can be used to formulate a strategy for Maersk once they enter the Kenyan market. To this end, the report recommends an all inclusive recruitment exercise that allows for internal and external applicants. The same will bring about diversity in the company. The report also outlines the importance of training and development. To this end, recommendations are made that the training and development be periodic and focus on specific skills. According to Kamoche (2002, p. 997) employees require appreciation for the service they do in a company. To this end, Maersk needs to develop an extrinsic and intrinsic reward system. Also, the company should develop a concrete performance management to ensure that they meet their objectives. Finally, Maersk would do well in incorporating their employees in the decision making process. Such a human resource strategy helps in ensuring that the entire company operates as one unit. References Dessler, G. 2000, Human resource management, 8th edn, Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. Dickmann, M Muller-Camen, M 2006, Ã¢â¬ËA typology of international human resource management strategies and processesÃ¢â¬â¢, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 580-601. Gilmore, S Williams, S 2009, Human resource managemen t, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Grieves, J 2003, Strategic human resource development, Sage Publications, London. Grote, R 2002, The performance appraisal question and answer book a survival guide for managers, American Management Association, New York. Hoch, J Dulebohn, J 2013, Ã¢â¬ËShared leadership in enterprise resource planning and human resource management system implementationÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Management Review, vol. 23 no. 1, pp. 114-125. Holtbrugge, D, Friedmann, C Puck, J 2010, Ã¢â¬ËRecruitment and retention in foreign firms in India: a resource-based viewÃ¢â¬â¢, Human Resource Management, vol. 49 no. 3, pp. 439-455. Kamoche, K 2002, Ã¢â¬ËIntroduction: human resource management in AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 13 no. 7, pp. 993-997. Kampf, C 2007, Ã¢â¬ËCorporate social responsibility: WalMart, Maersk and the cultural bounds of representation in corporate web sitesÃ¢â¬â¢, Corporate Communications, vol. 12 no. 1, pp. 41-57. Kramar, R 2014, Ã¢â¬ËBeyond strategic human resource management: is sustainable human resource management the next approach?Ã¢â¬â¢, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 25 no. 8, pp. 1069-1089. Mondy, R, Noe, R Gowan, M 2005, Human resource management, 9th edn, Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River. Prasad, P Kamalanabhan, T 2010, Ã¢â¬ËHuman resource excellence in software industry in India: an exploratory studyÃ¢â¬â¢, International Journal of Logistics Economics and Globalisation, vol. 2 no. 4, p. 316.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Principle of physiology - Assignment Example A marking rubric is provided. This is the guide that the markers are going to use to mark your practical worksheets. Study it carefully. You need to print one of these sheets and include with your worksheet. It may take 15-20 minutes to generate a report so please be patient. This report will tell you how similar (in a %) your work is to other published work. In the example below there is 82% similarity (unacceptable!). One the right hand side it lists where the information has come from listed under 1, 2 and 3. Ideally you should have 0% if you have referenced correctly and put the answers in your own words. Once you have the report if you have any hits (coloured text) which for this piece of work should total no more than 20% you will need to write a short justification for each hit that you receive on your worksheet. Alternatively you can re-write those sections and re: run the Turn It In Report. I understand that students like to include the instructions and or questions in their submission. If the highlighted text is part of the question or instructions for the worksheet then you do not need to justify. You only need to justify Ã¢â¬Å"hitsÃ¢â¬ (highlighted text) that you receive on your answers. Diagrams from textbooks are acceptable but they must be referenced correctly. If you use the diagram exactly how it appears in the textbook the reference would be (Sherwood, 2010). If you add something to the diagram to aid in your explanation (preferable) then the reference would be (modified from Sherwood, 2010). If you have drawn your own original version of a diagram to explain then you will not need to reference (even better option). If you are getting lots of hits and it is showing a lot of similarity with already published work then you are not doing this correctly. You need to modify your style of writing (put it in your own words) and seek assistance with referencing and / or scientific writing. You cannot copy slabs of text from